Stroke rehabilitation: What to expect as you recover
Stroke rehabilitation is an important part of recovery after stroke. Find out what’s involved in stroke rehabilitation.
By Mayo Clinic Staff
Stroke rehabilitation: What to expect as you recover
Stroke rehabilitation is a program of different therapies designed to help you relearn skills lost after a stroke. Depending on the parts of your brain affected by the stroke, rehabilitation can help with movement, speech, strength and daily living skills. Stroke rehabilitation can help you regain independence and improve your quality of life.
There’s a wide range of complications from stroke — and how well each person recovers afterward. Researchers have found that people who participate in a focused stroke rehabilitation program perform better than most people who don’t have stroke rehabilitation. Therefore, stroke rehabilitation is recommended for all people affected by stroke.
What’s involved in stroke rehabilitation?
There are many approaches to helping people recover from stroke. But overall, rehabilitation is centered around specifically focused and repetitive actions — practicing the same thing over and over again. Your rehabilitation plan will depend on the part of the body or type of ability affected by your stroke.
Physical activities might include:
- Motor-skill exercises. Exercises can help improve muscle strength and coordination throughout the body. These can include muscles used for balance, walking and even swallowing.
- Mobility training. You might learn to use mobility aids, such as a walker, canes, wheelchair or ankle brace. The ankle brace can stabilize and strengthen your ankle to help support your body’s weight while you relearn to walk.
- Constraint-induced therapy. An unaffected limb is restrained while you practice moving the affected limb to help improve its function. This therapy is sometimes called forced-use therapy.
- Range-of-motion therapy. Certain exercises and treatments can ease muscle tension (spasticity) and help you regain range of motion.
Technology-assisted physical activities might include:
- Functional electrical stimulation. Electricity is applied to weakened muscles, causing them to contract. The electrical stimulation may help reeducate your muscles.
- Robotic technology. Robotic devices can assist impaired limbs with performing repetitive motions, helping the limbs to regain strength and function.
- Wireless technology. An activity monitor might help you increase post-stroke activity.
- Virtual reality. The use of video games and other computer-based therapies involves interacting with a simulated, real-time environment.
Cognitive and emotional activities might include:
- Therapy for cognitive disorders. Occupational therapy and speech therapy can help you with lost cognitive abilities, such as memory, processing, problem-solving, social skills, judgment and safety awareness.
- Therapy for communication disorders. Speech therapy can help you regain lost abilities in speaking, listening, writing and comprehension.
- Psychological evaluation and treatment. Your emotional adjustment might be tested. You might also have counseling or participate in a support group.
- Medication. Your doctor might recommend an antidepressant or a medication that affects alertness, agitation or movement.
Therapies that are still being investigated include:
- Noninvasive brain stimulation. Techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation have been used with some success in a research setting to help improve a variety of motor skills.
- Biological therapies, such as stem cells, are being investigated, but should only be used as part of a clinical trial.
- Alternative medicine. Treatments such as massage, herbal therapy and acupuncture are being evaluated.
When should stroke rehabilitation begin?
The sooner you begin stroke rehabilitation, the more likely you are to regain lost abilities and skills.
It’s common for stroke rehabilitation to start as soon as 24 to 48 hours after your stroke, while you’re in the hospital.
How long does stroke rehabilitation last?
How long you need stroke rehabilitation depends on the severity of your stroke and related complications. Some stroke survivors recover quickly. But most need some form of long-term stroke rehabilitation. This could last for possibly months or years after their stroke.
Your stroke rehabilitation plan will change during your recovery as you relearn skills and your needs change. With ongoing practice, you can continue to make gains over time.
Where does stroke rehabilitation take place?
You’ll probably begin stroke rehabilitation while you’re still in the hospital. Before you leave, you and your family will work with hospital social workers and your care team to determine the best rehabilitation setting. Factors to consider include your needs, what insurance will cover, and what is most convenient for you and your family.
The options include:
- Inpatient rehabilitation units. These facilities are either freestanding or part of a larger hospital or clinic. You may stay at the facility for up to 2 to 3 weeks as part of an intensive rehabilitation program.
- Outpatient units. These facilities are often part of a hospital or clinic. You may spend a few hours at the facility a couple of days a week.
- Skilled nursing facilities. The type of care available at a nursing facility varies. Some facilities specialize in rehabilitation, while others offer less-intense therapy options.
- Home-based programs. Having your therapy at home allows greater flexibility than other options. But you likely won’t have access to specialized rehabilitation equipment. Insurance coverage for home-based programs varies widely.
Talk to your doctor and family about the best option for you.
Who participates in your stroke rehabilitation team?
Stroke rehabilitation involves a variety of specialists.
Specialists who can help with physical needs include:
- Doctors. Your primary care doctor — as well as neurologists and specialists in physical medicine and rehabilitation — can guide your care and help prevent complications. These doctors can also help you to achieve and maintain healthy lifestyle behaviors to avoid another stroke.
- Rehabilitation nurses. Nurses who specialize in caring for people with limitations with activities can help you incorporate the skills you learn into your daily routines. Rehabilitation nurses can also offer options for managing bowel and bladder complications resulting from a stroke.
- Physical therapists. These therapists help you relearn movements such as walking and keeping your balance.
- Occupational therapists. These therapists help you lead more independent and active lives. They can help you relearn skills for dressing, bathing and household chores and return to driving. Occupational therapists can also help improve your ability to swallow and your cognitive ability with home and workplace tasks and overall safety.
Specialists who focus on cognitive, emotional and vocational skills include:
- Speech and language pathologists. These specialists help improve your language skills and ability to swallow. Speech and language pathologists can also work with you to develop tools to address memory, thinking and communication problems.
- Social workers. Social workers help connect you to financial resources, plan for new living arrangements if necessary and identify community resources.
- Psychologists. These specialists assess your thinking skills and help address your mental and emotional health concerns.
- Therapeutic recreation specialists. These specialists help you resume activities and roles you enjoyed before your stroke, including hobbies and community participation.
- Vocational counselors. These specialists help you address return-to-work issues if that is one of your goals.
What factors affect the outcome of stroke rehabilitation?
Stroke recovery varies from person to person. It’s hard to predict how many abilities you might recover and how soon. In general, successful stroke rehabilitation depends on:
- Physical factors, including the severity of your stroke in terms of both cognitive and physical effects
- Emotional factors, such as your motivation and mood, and your ability to stick with rehabilitation activities outside of therapy sessions
- Social factors, such as the support of friends and family
- Therapeutic factors, including an early start to your rehabilitation and the skill of your stroke rehabilitation team
The rate of recovery is generally greatest in the weeks and months after a stroke. However, there is evidence that performance can improve even 12 to 18 months after a stroke.
Stroke rehabilitation takes time
Recovering from a stroke can be a long and frustrating experience. It’s normal to face difficulties along the way. Dedication and willingness to work toward improvement will help you gain the most benefit.
Get the latest health information from Mayo Clinic’s experts.
Sign up for free, and stay up to date on research advancements, health tips and current health topics, like COVID-19, plus expertise on managing health.
To provide you with the most relevant and helpful information, and understand which
information is beneficial, we may combine your email and website usage information with
other information we have about you. If you are a Mayo Clinic patient, this could
include protected health information. If we combine this information with your protected
health information, we will treat all of that information as protected health
information and will only use or disclose that information as set forth in our notice of
privacy practices. You may opt-out of email communications at any time by clicking on
the unsubscribe link in the e-mail.
May 18, 2022
- Jankovic J, et al., eds. Neurological rehabilitation. In: Bradley and Daroff’s Neurology in Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Elsevier; 2022. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed March 14, 2022.
- Kellerman RD, et al. Rehabilitation of the stroke patient. In: Conn’s Current Therapy 2022. Elsevier; 2022. https://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed March 16, 2022.
- AskMayoExpert. Stroke rehabilitation. Mayo Clinic; 2022.
- Choi MJ, et al. Digital therapeutics: Emerging new therapy for neurologic deficits after stroke. Journal of Stroke. 2019; doi:10.5853/jos.2019.01963.
- Cunningham DA, et al. Tailoring brain stimulation to the nature of rehabilitative therapies in stroke. Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Clinics of North America. 2015; doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2015.07.001.
- Stroke. Natural Medicines. https://naturalmedicines.therapeuticresearch.com/databases/comparative-effectiveness/condition.aspx?condition=Stroke. Accessed March 14, 2022.
- Bellamkonda E (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic. March 21, 2022.
- Post-stroke rehabilitation fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/Patient-Caregiver-Education/Fact-Sheets/Post-Stroke-Rehabilitation-Fact-Sheet. Accessed March 14, 2022.
- Hoenig H. Overview of geriatric rehabilitation: Program components and settings for rehabilitation. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed March 14, 2022.
- Hoenig H. Overview of geriatric rehabilitation: Patient assessment and common indications for rehabilitation. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed March 14, 2022.
- Schultz BA (expert opinion). Mayo Clinic. March 17, 2022.
- Edwardson MA, et al. Overview of ischemic stroke prognosis in adults. https://www.uptodate.contents/search. Accessed March 14, 2022.
- Winstein CJ, et al. Guidelines for adult stroke rehabilitation and recovery. Stroke. 2016; doi.org/10.1161/STR.0000000000000098.
See more In-depth
- Act FAST if you suspect stroke
- Antiphospholipid syndrome
- Arteriovenous fistula
- Assistive technology therapy
- Infographic: Asymptomatic Carotid Disease
- Atrial septal defect (ASD)
- Behcet’s disease
- Carotid angioplasty and stenting
- Carotid artery disease
- Carotid endarterectomy
- Carotid ultrasound
- Coronary angioplasty and stents
- CREST Trial
- CT scan
- Dietary fiber
- Essential thrombocythemia
- Four Steps to Heart Health
- High blood pressure dangers
- Home enteral nutrition
- Hyperbaric oxygen therapy: Can it reduce stroke damage?
- Intermittent fasting
- Lisa M. Epp, RDN, LD, discusses home enteral nutrition
- Lisa M. Epp, RDN, LD, discusses how to remove your feeding tube at home
- Lisa M. Epp, RDN, LD, discusses the new enteral connectors
- Manpreet S. Mundi, M.D., discusses tube feeding
- Mayo Clinic Minute: Telestroke technology inside ambulances
- Mayo Clinic Minute What you need to know about stroke
- NSAIDs: Do they increase my risk of heart attack and stroke?
- Seeing inside the heart with MRI
- What is a stroke? A Mayo Clinic expert explains
- Stroke: First aid
- Strokes FAQ
- Stroke rehabilitation
- Stroke Robot
- Symptom Checker
- Telemedicine Advances
- Typing with Brain Waves
- Carotid angioplasty and stenting
- Coronary angioplasty
- What is meant by the term “heart age”?